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A decade (2011–2020) of tropical cyclone reconnaissance flights over the South China Sea » A decade has passed since the Hong Kong Observatory (HKO) and the Government Flying Service (GFS) jointly commenced operational tropical cyclone (TC) reconnaissance over the South China Sea in 2011,…

Tropical Cyclone Intensity Change from a Simple Ocean–Atmosphere Coupled Model » Abstract The interaction between a tropical cyclone (TC) and the underlying ocean is investigated using an atmosphere–ocean coupled model. The atmospheric model is developed from the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State)–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) mesoscale model version 4 MM4 and the ocean model consists of a mixed layer and an inactive stagnant layer beneath. Coupling between the atmosphere and the ocean models is achieved through wind stress and surface heat and moisture fluxes that depend on the sea surface temperature (SST). In the absence of a background flow, the atmospheric component consists of only a predefined vortex with an initial central pressure and the radius of the 15 m s−1 wind. The basic control experiments demonstrate that the coupled model can simulate the development of a TC and its interaction with the ocean. Changes in TC intensity are sensitive to those of SST and the response is almost instantaneous. An SST of ∼27°C is found to be the threshold for

Dynamics of the Typhoon Haitang Related High Ozone Episode over Hong Kong » It has been previously established that photochemical smog occurring in the Pearl River Delta Region (PRD) was associated with stagnant meteorological conditions. However, the photochemical smog (17 July to 20 July 2005) induced by typhoon Haitang was associated with moderate wind speed and nonstagnant meteorological conditions. The dynamic process of this ozone episode was studied using an integrated numerical model, that is, a mesoscale meteorological model and Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Model performance has been evaluated using both ground-based meteorological and air quality observations. Analysis of simulated wind fields and ozone budget has been performed. This dynamic process is summarized into three physical factors. First, the westerly wind placed Hong Kong directly downwind of the PRD emissions. Second, the convergence of wind flow stimulated a vertical local circulation near the surface layer. This recirculation allowed primary and secondary pollutants to accumulate. Third, the

A Seasonal Resilience Index to Evaluate the Impacts of Super Typhoons on Urban Vegetation in Hong Kong » Urban vegetation plays a vital role in developing sustainable cities via essential urban ecoservices. Potential threats, however, from natural disturbances to urban vegetation and its resilience re…

Numerical simulation and process analysis of typhoon‐related ozone episodes in Hong Kong » In this study the synoptic patterns conducive to the occurrence of O3 episodes in Hong Kong are categorized by an inspection of the weather charts over the period of 1999–2003. The synoptic patterns…

Typhoon Nina and the August 1975 Flood over Central China » Abstract The August 1975 flood in central China was one of the most destructive floods in history. Catastrophic flooding was the product of extreme rainfall from Typhoon Nina over a 3-day period from 5 to 7 August 1975. Despite the prominence of the August 1975 flood, relatively little is known about the evolution of rainfall responsible for the flood. Details of extreme rainfall and flooding for the August 1975 event in central China are examined based on empirical analyses of rainfall and streamflow measurements and based on downscaling simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, driven by Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) fields. Key hydrometeorological features of the flood event are placed in a climatological context through hydroclimatological analyses of 20CR fields. Results point to the complex evolution of rainfall over the 3-day period with distinctive periods of storm structure controlling rainfall distribution in the flood region. Blocking plays a central role in controll


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